What IS A Power Cord ?

power cord plug

What Is A Power Cord ?

Brief Summary

The power cord is an electrical component that we often use it in our modern daily life. The power cord is also called the power supply cord. It is a necessary path to provide energy sources for electrical components or equipment. It is one of the basic elements of electrical products or components, such as computers, televisions, printers, rice cookers, hair dryers, ect. that we often use in work and life.

The power cord generally consists of 3 parts: plug, wire / cable and terminal connector.

power cord

Below we will learn more about the power cord from many aspects.

The history of power cords

As early as BC, the Greek scholar Milly discovered the existence of “electricity”. In early 1600, the British doctor Gilbert formally wrote an article about the phenomenon of “electricity”. Later, the British Gray and French Dufie discovered electricity separately. The conductivity and insulation and electrostatic phenomena. The most famous in history is the kite experiment conducted by American scientist Franklin in September 1752, which proved that electricity exists in nature.

In 1831, British scientist Faraday discovered the “law of electromagnetic induction”, the discovery of current magnetic effects, and the proposal of electromagnetic theory, which laid the foundation for the widespread application of electricity and power cord in the later period.

In 1879, the American scientist Edison created the electric light, and the power cord has a wider application prospect in daily life.

Lights Lamps Power Cord

In 1882, Edison created the first power transmission system, in New York, USA, he used copper rods wrapped in jute were placed in a hard pipe of bituminous substance.

Copper Rod power supply cord

In 1889, Franci of the United States created oil-impregnated paper insulated power cables, which are also commonly used high-voltage power cables now.

With the development of technology and demand, the development of power cords is also very rapid.

In the early days of home electrification, people mainly used bare copper wires and used cotton cloth for insulation, and later used rubber or bituminous coated cotton cloth for insulation.

In the 1880s, the invention of vulcanized rubber made the power cord take a big step towards modern development. Vulcanized rubber can be used as cable insulation material. Later, polyethylene and rubber were used as insulating materials. In 1906, an armored cable was manufactured. This cable has good protection to the conductor, but it is expensive.

In the 1950s, people began to use PVC (Polyvinyl chloride) insulated cables to this day.

PVC cable

Note: Some people use aluminum as a conductor to make power cords, which is very dangerous.

The reasons are as follows:

. High resistivity: the resistivity of aluminum cable is about 1.68 times higher than that of copper cable.

. Low strength: the allowable stress of copper at room temperature is 7 ~ 28% higher than that of aluminum. Especially the stress at high temperature, the difference between them is very far.

. No fatigue resistance: aluminum is easy to break after repeated bending, while copper is not. In terms of elasticity index, copper is also about 1.7 ~ 1.8 times higher than aluminum.

. Poor stability and easy corrosion: copper wire is resistant to oxidation and corrosion, while aluminum wire is easy to be oxidized and corroded.

. Small current carrying capacity: due to the high resistivity, the allowable current carrying capacity (maximum current that can be passed) of copper cable with the same section is about 40% higher than that of aluminum cable.

. High calorific value: under the same current, the calorific value of copper cable with the same section is much smaller than that of aluminum cable, making the operation safer.

. Oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance: the connector of copper cable has stable performance and will not cause accidents due to oxidation. The joint of aluminum cable is unstable, and fire accidents often occur due to the increase of contact resistance and heating due to oxidation. Therefore, the accident rate is much higher than that of copper cable.

Types of power cord

There are many ways to classify power cords, which can be divided into computer power cords, light power cords, power cords for small appliances, power cords for generators, etc. according to their use; people can also classify power cords according to different plugs, due to safety requirements , Countries in the world have formulated their own power cord production safety standards and certification systems according to their own conditions. Therefore, there have been many plug standards and certifications in the world. For safety, please buy and use the power cords produced according to safety standards and with safety certificates. The current main plug standards and certification marks in the world are as follows:

STANDARD

CERTIFICATE MARK

COUNTRY

CCEE

CCC China

VDE

VDE

Germany

KEMA

KEMA

The Netherlands

SEV

SEV

Switzerland

SEMKO SEMKO

Sweden

DEMKO

DEMKO

Denmark

FI

FI

Finland

OVE

OVE

Austria

CEBEC

CEBEC

Belgium

IMQ

IMQ

Italy

NF

NF

France

UL

UL

USA

C- UL

C-UL

Canada

SII

SII

Israel

SAA

SAA

Australia

BSI

ASTA

UK

T-MARK

PSE

Japan

KS

KC

Korea

BSA

TUV

Brazil

IRAM

IRAM

Argentina

In addition, people also distinguish power cords according to the wires they are equipped with. Nowadays, the common wire/ cable information in various countries is as follows:

Worldwide Cable and Wire Technical Information

Cable and Wire Technical Information

CCC, VDE, KTL, SAA, TUV Certificated Cable and Wire

60245IEC53. H05RR-F, 60245IEC57. H05RN-F, 05RN8-F (Ordinary duty flexible cords)

VDE

CCC

KTL

SAA

TUV

2 0.75 0.6 2.4 0.8 6.4
1.0 2.6 0.9 7.2
1.5 0.8 3.3 1.0 8.1
2.5 0.9 4.0 1.1 10.2
3 0.75 0.6 2.4 0.9 7.0
1.0 2.6 7.6
1.5 0.8 3.3 1.0 9.2
2.5 0.9 4.0 1.1 10.8
4 0.75 0.6 2.4 0.9 7.6
1.0 2.6 8.3
1.5 0.8 3.3 1.1 10.2
2.5 0.9 4.0 1.2 12.1
5 0.75 0.6 2.4 1.0 8.5
1.0 2.6 9.3
1.5 0.8 3.3 1.1 11.5
2.5 0.9 4.0 1.3 13.4
A05RR-F, A05RN-F(Ordinary duty flexible cords) S
2 1.25 0.8 3.1 1.0 8.2
3 1.25 8.7
60245IEC66. H07RN-F, H07RN8-F (Heavy duty flexible cords)

VDE

CCC

KTL

SAA

TUV

2 1.0 0.8 3.1 1.3 8.8
1.5 3.3 1.4 9.4
2.5 0.9 4.1 1.7 11.6
3 1.0 0.8 3.1 1.4 9.5
1.5 3.3 1.6 10.4
2.5 0.9 4.1 1.8 12.6
4 0.8 3.1 1.5
1.5 3.3 1.7

1.9

11.4
2.5 0.9 4.1 13.7
5 1.0 0.8 3.1 1.6 11.6
1.5 3.3 1.8 12.6
2.5 0.9 4.1 2.0 15.1
60245IEC51. H03RT-H
2 0.75 0.8 2.8 6.6 VDE
1.0 3.1 6.9
1.5 3.3 7.4
3 0.75 0.8 2.8 7.0
1.0 3.1 7.4
1.5 3.3 7.9
60227IEC52. H03VV(H2)-F, H03V2V2(H2)-F(Light duty flexible cords)

VDE

CCC

KTL

SAA

TUV

Conductor insulation (mm) Sheath
No. Area Thickness OD Thickness OD
2 0.5 0.5 2.0 0.6 5.1
0.5 2.0 3.4’5.4
0.75 2.2 5.5
0.75 2.2 3.5×5.7
3 0.5 0.5 2.0 0.6 5.4
0.75 2.2 5.8
60227IEC53. H05VV(H2)-F, H05V2V2(H2)-F (Ordinary duty flexible cords)
2 0.75 0.6 2.3 0.8 6.3
1.0 2.5 6.7
1.5 0.7 3

4.3×6.8

7.8

2.5 0.8 3.7 1.0 9.5
3 0.75 0.6 2.3 0.8 6.8
1.0 2.5 7.2
1.5 0.7 3 0.9 8.2
2.5 0.8 3.7 1.1 10.2
4 0.75 0.6 2.3 0.8 7.3
1.0 2.5 0.9 7.9
1.5 0.7 3 1.0 7.8
2.5 0.8 3.7 1.1 11.2
5 0.75 0.6 2.3 0.9 8.1
1.0 2.5 8.6
1.5 0.7 3 1.1 10.7
2.5 0.8 3.7 1.2 12.4
A05VV-F(Ordinary duty flexible cords S
2 1.25 0.7 2.9 0.8 7.5
3 1.25 2.9 0.9 8.1
H07VV-F (Heavy duty flexible cords) SAA
2 0.75 0.8 2.8 1.3 8.2
1.0 3.0 8.6
1.5 3.3 1.5 9.6
2.5 0.9 4.0 1.7 11.4
3 0.75 0.8 2.8 1.4 8.9
1.0 3.0 9.3
1.5 3.3 1.6 10.4
2.5 0.9 4.0 1.8 12.3
4 0.75 0.8 2.8 1.5 9.8
1.0 3.0 10.3
1.5 3.3 1.7 11.4
2.5 0.9 4.0 1.9 13.5
5 0.75 0.8 2.8 1.6 10.8
1.0 3.0 11.3
1.5 3.3 1.8 12.6
2.5 0.9 4.0 2.0 14.8

UL, c-UL Certificated Wire and Cable

SJT、SJTW、SJTO、SJTOW. SJTOO. SJTOOW. SJT-R UL

c-UL

2 18 0.76 2.8 0.76 7.5
16 3.1 8.1
14 3.5 8.8
12 4.0 1.14 10.8
3 18 0.76 2.8 0.76 7.9
16 3.1 8.6
14 3.5 9.4
12 4.0 1.14 11.2
4 18 0.76 2.8 0.76 8.6
16 3.1 9.2
14 3.5 10.3
12 4.0 1.14 12.3
5 18 0.76 2.8 0.76 9.4
16 3.1 10.3
14 3.5 11.4
12 4.0 1.14 13.6
ST、STW、STO、STOW、STOO、STOOW
2 18 0.76 2.8 1.52 8.9
16 3.1 9.4
14 1.14 4.3 2.03 12.9
12 4.8 2.41 14.7
3 18 0.76 2.8 1.52 9.3
16 3.1 9.9
14 1.14 4.3 2.03 13.5
12 4.8 2.41 15.4
4 18 0.76 2.8 1.52 10.0
16 3.1 10.7
14 1.14 4.3 2.03 14.7
12 4.8 2.41 16.7
5 18 0.76 2.8 2.03 11.8
16 3.1 12.6
14 1.14 4.3 2.41 16.7
12 4.8 18.0
HPN、HPN-R
2 18 1.14 3.5×7.0
16 1.14 3.8×7.6
14 1.52 6.5×11.7
3 18 0.38 2.0 1.14 3.7×9.0
16 0.38 2.3 1.14 3.9×11.0
14 0.38 3.3 1.52 6.5*13.9
SPT-1. SPT-1W
2 18 0.76 2.8×5.6
SPT・2、SPT・2W、SPT-2-R
2 18 1.14 3.5×7.0
16 1.14 3.8×7.4
3 18 0.38 2.0 1.14 3.5×9.0
16 0.38 2.3 1.14 3.8×11.0
SPT-3
2 18 1.52 4.4×8.7
16 1.52 4.7×9.5
14 2.03 6.0×12.0
3 18 0.38 2.0 1.52 4.4×10.8
16 0.38 2.3 1.52 4.7*12.0
14 0.38 3.3 2.03 6.0×14.5
NISPT-1
2 18 0.38 2.0 0.38 2.6×4.8
NISPT-2
2 18 0.76 2.8 0.38 3.7×6.8
16 3.1 3.9×7.5
3 18 0.76 2.8 0.38 3.7×10.4
16 3.1 3.9×11.0
SVT
2 18 0.38 2.1 0.76 5.8
17 2.2 6.0
16 2.3 6.4
3 18 0.38 2.1 0.76 6.1
17 2.2 6.4
16 2.3 6.8

Japan PSE Certificated Cable and Wire

VCTF/HVCTF PVC FLEXIBLE CORD

No.of Core

Conductor

Insulation

Jacket

Amp.Rating
Sectional Area(mm’) Construction (No./mm) Nom.Thick (mm) Nom.Dia

(mm)

Nom.Thick (mm) Nom.Dia (mm)
2 0.75 30/0.18 0.60 2.40 1.00 6.7 7A
1.25 50/0.18 2.75 7.5 12A
2.00 37/0.28 3.15 8.1 15A
3 0.75 30/0.18 0.60 2.40 1.00 7.1 7A
1.25 50/0.18 2.75 7.9 12A
2.00 37/0.28 3.15 8.6 15A
4 0.75 30/0.18 0.60 2.40 1.00 7.7 7A
1.25 50/0.18 2.75 8.6 12A
2.00 37/0.28 3.15 9.4 15A

VCTFK/HVCTFK PVC FLEXIBLE CORD

No.of Core

Conductor

Insulation

Jacket

Amp.Rating

Sectional

Area(mm2»

Construction (No./mm) Nom.Thick (mm) Ncm.Dia (mm) Nom.Thick (mm) Nom.Dia (mm)
2 0.75 30/0.18 0.60 2.40 0.60 4.4X6.6 7A
1.25 50/0.18 2.75 4.7X7.4 12A
2.00 37/0.28 3.15 5.1X8.0 15A

VFF/HVFF PVC FLEXIBLE CORD

No.of Core

Conductor

Insulation

Amp.Rating

Sectional

Area(mm7)

Construction (No./mm) Nom.Thick (mm) Nom.Dia (mm)
2 0.50 20/0.18 0.80 2.6X5.2 3A
0.75 30/0.18 2.8X5.6 7A
1.25 50/0.18 3.2X6.4 12A
2.00 37/0.28 3.4X6.8 15A

VSF/HVSF PVC FLEXIBLE CORD

No.of Core

Conductor

Insulation

Amp.Rating
Sectional Area(mm) Construction

(No./mm)

Nom.Thick (mm)

Nom.Dia

(mm)

1 0.50 20/0.18 0.80 2.5 3A
0.75 30/0.18 2.7 7A
1.25 50/0.18 3.1 12A
2.00 37/0.28 3.4 15A

VCT/HVCT PVC FLEXIBLE CORD

No.of Core Conductor Insulation Jacket Amp.Rating
Sectional Areatmm*) Construction

(No./mm)

Nom.Thick (mm) Nom.Dia

(mm)

Nom.Thick (mm)

Nom.Dia

(mm)

2 0.75 30/0.18 0.80 2.75 1.7 8.80 7A
1.25 50/0.18 3.10 9.60 12A
2.00 37/0.28 3.60 1.8 10.5 15A
3 0.75 30/0.18 0.80 2.75 1.7 9.20 7A
1.25 50/0.18 3.10 10.5 12A
2.00 37/0.28 3.60 1.8 11.0 15A

 

HHFF

PSE
Conductor Insulation (mm) Max conductor resistance at20*CQ/KM
No. Area Thickness OD Bare Tinned
2 0.75 1.0 3.2×6.4 24.4 25.8
1.25 3.6×7.2 14.7 15.5
2.0 3.9×7.8 9.5 9.91

PNCTFK

2 0.75 0.6 2.3 1.0 4.4×6.8
1.25 2.7 4.8×7.6
2.0 3.0 5.1×8.2

2PNCTF

2 0.75 0.6 2.4 1.0 6.8
1.25 2.7 1.1 7.8
2.0 3.1 8.4
3 0.75 0.6 2.4 1.0 7.2
1.25 2.7 1.1 8.3
2.0 3.1 1.2 9.1
4 0.75 0.6 2.4 1.1 8.0
1.25 2.7 1.2 9.2
2.0 3.1 9.9
2PHCT
2 0.75 0.8 2.8 1.7 9.0
1.25 3.1 9.8
2.0 3.5 1.8 11.0
3 0.75 0.8 2.8 1.7 9.4
1.25 3.1 1.8 10.5
2.0 3.5 11.5
4 0.75 0.8 2.8 1.8 10.5
1.25 3.1 11.5
2.0 3.5 1.9 12.5

Finally, people also distinguish power cords based on terminals, such as various terminal connectors, such as O ring connector, U shape connector, Crimp Female plug ect.; IEC 60320 connectors, such as IEC C5, C7, C13, C14, C19 etc..

The leading suppliers of power cords in the world market

You can choose the appropriate manufacturer according to your different needs. Now the well-known power cord manufacturers in the international market mainly include:

Kord King(PA, USA), Interpower Corporation (IA, USA), World Cord Sets, Inc. (CT, USA), Quail Electronics, Inc. (CA, USA), United Universal Industries, Inc.( IL, USA), Cord-Sets, Inc. (MN, USA), American Power Cord Corporation ( NJ, USA), Autac (CT, USA),  Electri-Cord Mfg. Co. (PA, USA), United Universal Industries ( IL, USA), American Cordset Industries ( IL, USA), Electric Cord Sets, Inc (OH, USA), Feller LLC ( NC, USA),  Volex plc (Basingstoke, UK), Sun Fai Industrial Co. (HK, China), Ningbo Aurich Electronics Co., Ltd. (Ningbo, China), Oasis Connectivity ( Haryana, India), NIngbo Yunhuan Electronics Group Co., Ltd. (Ningbo, China), Ningbo Linsheng Electric Co., Ltd. (Ningbo, China), Ningbo Well Electric Appliance Co. Ltd (Ningbo, China), Ningbo Xuanhua Electric Co., Ltd. (Ningbo, China), Ningbo Xuanshi Electric Co., Ltd. (Ningbo, China), Ningbo Yunxin Electric Appliance Co., Ltd. ( Ningbo, China), Shangyu Jintao Electron Co., Ltd. ( Shaoxing, China), Shaoxing Green Electric Co., Ltd. (Shaoxing, China),  Ningbo Fuyu Electric Co., Ltd. ( Ningbo, China), Zhejiang Jinting Nuclear Cable Co., Ltd. (Ningbo, China), Ningbo JInting Nuclear Cable Co., Ltd. (Ningbo, China), Ningbo Ousheng Electric Co., Ltd. (Ningbo, China), Ningbo Compx Electronic Appliance Co., Ltd ( Ningbo, China), Yuyao Fanghua Electronics Co., Ltd. ( Ningbo, China), Yuyao Anlian Electronics Science and Technology Co ., Ltd. ( Ningbo, China ), Yuyao Yunbiao Electronics Co., Ltd. (Ningbo, China), Yuyao Jingyi Electronics Co., ltd ( Ningbo, China), Ningbo Biaoda Electric Co., Ltd. (Ningbo, China), Ningbo Aurich Electric Co., Ltd. (Ningbo, China), Ningbo Qiaopu Electric Co., Ltd. (Ningbo, China), Ningbo Liansheng Wire & Cable Co., Ltd. (Ningbo, China), Ningbo Wangting Electronic Co., Ltd. ( Ningbo, China).

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